Intros

According to Terry Eagleton, “It is in the significant silences of a text, in its gaps and absences that the presence of ideology can be most positively felt.” Here ideology can be understood to mean the “dominant way of seeing the world” or the “historically relative structure of perception which underpins the power of a particular social class” (Terry Eagleton, Marxism and Literary Criticism). Thus, Eagleton is declaring that the dominant beliefs of a society that are used to instill the ruling class with power can best be seen through absences. The profound meaning of Eagleton’s statement can be seen in Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Count Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier, and Sir Philip Sidney’s “Sonnet 9” from Astrophil and Stella in all of which the absence of women serves to reveal the focus on the male dominated order and this order’s corresponding fear of the threat that women pose.

;

Despite the fact that the Hebrew and Greek Bibles are bound together into one text, the two function in ways that are often difficult to reconcile. For instance, the two sets of scriptures involve radically different stories and characters that make them seem, at least initially, to have more points of divergence than convergence. However, the Greek Bible can ultimately be understood as responding to the struggles that the Hebrew Bible has with the meaning of God’s covenantal promise of land for his people. This covenantal promise of land frames the entirety of the Hebrew Bible as is evidenced by the fact that, after it is first given by God to Abraham, it is notably repeated to each of the successive patriarchs. Thus, when the Israelites are exiled from the land of the covenant, questions inevitably arise as to what the existing relationship is between the Israelites and their God, and, without answers to these questions, the narrative simply ends. The introduction of the Greek Bible into the narrative can then be understood as seeking to resolve these issues surrounding land by recasting the promise in terms of a metaphysical kingdom. The Greek Bible, in turn, enacts this recasting through the repetition of type scenes from the Hebrew Bible in the Greek Bible. Thus, the writings in the Greek Bible are responding to the covenant problem in the Hebrew Bible by taking what was rooted in the physical and moving it to the metaphysical, which ultimately culminates in the Hebrew Bible’s promise of physical land becoming a promise of a metaphysical kingdom.

;

I thought I had paid for everything. Not like the woman pays and pays and pays. No idea of retribution or punishment. Just exchange of values (Hemingway 152).

In this passage from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, Jake’s recognition of the societal need for the containment of women becomes apparent. Here, Jake realizes that women are engaged in a system in which they must constantly pay for what they receive. From this notion of constant payment, Jake then makes a sharp contrast with the system that he himself is a part of where payments are a simple exchange of values. This contrast highlights the way in which women are part of a system where payments are founded on ideas of retribution and punishment. The woman must not only give to receive, but she must also be punished in her payments. It is then from Jake’s recognition of this universal need for women to not only pay, but be punished, that the novel begins to explore issues concerning the containment of Brett, the novel’s leading lady.

Quoting

When quoting, the in-text citation appears right after the closed quotation marks and the period follows the citation itself.

For example:

Indeed, the myth of the West that we have come to know is that which “we have come to know from American movies” (Kuester 281).

If the quoted portion doesn’t end the sentence, put the in-text citation right after the quote and continue on with your sentence:

Essentially, in Volkswagen Blues imaginative colonization is achieved “through physical reappropriation of the continent” (Weisman 491) in that Jack and La Grande Sauterelle first follow the routes of the French explorers along the Mississippi River before setting out along the Oregon Trail.

The information in the in-text citation only needs to be information that is not made clear in the text itself. For example, in MLA format the in-text citation normally contains that author’s last name and the page number for the quote. However, if the page number or the author’s name is mentioned within the text itself, you do not need to repeat that information in the parentheses:

The term historiographic metafiction was coined by Linda Hutcheon in A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction in which Hutcheon defines historiographic metafiction as pertaining to “those well-known and popular novels which are both intensely self-reflexive and yet paradoxically also lay claim to historical events and personages” (5).

For quotes within quotes, use the double quotation marks to indicate the beginning and end of the quoted text as a whole and apostrophes to indicate the quote within the quote:

This irony is something that Harry’s friend, Rachel Gold, draws our attention to: “‘And you’re a Canadian, Harry. So why is a Canadian so concerned about teaching Americans how to be American?’” (Vanderhaeghe 181).

Here the entire quote is spoken text from within the novel itself. So, the double quotation marks and the apostrophes are all lumped together. Also, you’ll notice that the quote itself ends with a question mark that appears inside the quotation marks and that the period that marks the end of your sentence still comes after the citation itself.

Quotes longer than four lines need to be blocked off:

While in the previous examples, the use of imaginative colonization was more about a reclaiming of the genre of the Western rather than the Western frontier itself, Volkswagen Blues uses the aforementioned intertextuality along with a physical movement across the United States as a means of doing both. Essentially, the

spatial journey diagonally across the United States is…doubled by a textual journey covering a number of Canadian and American literary intertexts. Jack Waterman’s journey parallel’s the pioneer’s quest for the American dream, and the novel echoes this search as it is represented in the American intertexts that compose it (Miraglia 49, emphasis in original).

I can’t do it on the blog, but the whole quote itself would be indented, not just the first line, and the whole thing would be double-spaced.

As you’ll also notice in these examples, the quotes are always introduced by the text itself. So, you should try to find ways to integrate your quotes rather than “bomb-dropping” them into your text.

You should also try to make quote sandwiches. For example:

However, this quality of Shorty being mythologized is perhaps best seen in the fact that Chance wants him specifically for his great American movie. As Dick Harrison explains, “Western American fiction, because its metanarrative inscribes a national myth of origins, is, in a fairly explicit way, about being American” (71, emphasis in original). Thus, the fact that Chance wants Shorty for his film confirms his mythical status because Chance’s film is fundamentally about the myth of America and American identity.

Here there is a sentence that introduces the quote, a sentence that contains the quote, and, finally, a sentence that explains the significance of the quote.

<;/di

Essay Prompt

Write a descriptive essay. In your essay, pick a character from something that we’ve read so far this year and come up with an idea as to what makes them them. In other words, what is that character like in terms of personality, who are they as a person? In describing your character, think of events and dialogue and description that you can use to back up your argument that your character is best described as being a certain way. For more information on how to effectively do this assignment, see pages 74-78 in your textbook. Also, I can provide you with an example essay, but doing so would mean that you could not do the Prioress for your character. If that isn’t going to be overly limiting for you, let me know and I will send you a copy of my essay on the Prioress.

Your essay should be 3-5 double-spaced, typed pages in Times New Roman 12 pt font. We will have an optional draft turn in on the Wednesday after break. Feel free to email me with any and all questions.

Final copy due Tuesday 12/4.

I will be using our usual rubric for this essay: lowell catholic essay rubric.

College Essay

Here are the common app essay prompts. Pick one and write an essay of 250-500 words.

  • Evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken, or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you
  • Discuss some issue of personal, local, national, or international concern and its importance to you
  • Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you, and describe that influence
  • A range of academic interests, personal perspective, and life experiences adds much to the educational mix. Given your personal background, describe an experience that illustrates what you would bring to the diversity in a college community, or an encounter that demonstrated the importance of diversity to you
  • Topic of your choice

We will be doing a peer workshop with a draft of your essay on 10/10 final drafts will then be due on 10/15. The essays will be graded using the following rubric: college essay rubric.

Common App Essay

Here are the common app essay prompts. Pick one and write an essay of 250-300 words.

  • Evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken, or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you
  • Discuss some issue of personal, local, national, or international concern and its importance to you
  • Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you, and describe that influence
  • A range of academic interests, personal perspective, and life experiences adds much to the educational mix. Given your personal background, describe an experience that illustrates what you would bring to the diversity in a college community, or an encounter that demonstrated the importance of diversity to you
  • Topic of your choice